Modhera Dance Festival
Modhera dance festival is the major festival that is observed at the Sun Temple. This 
dance festival is organized by Gujarat Tourism of Gujarat Government to promote tourism 
and keep the Indian traditions and culture alive. It is held in the third week of January every 
year. The classical dance forms in the premises of this temple revive the imperial ambiance during the period.The main highlight of the Modhera dance festival is the typical Garba performance that depicts the glorious culture of Gujarat. People attired in colorful costumes perform the Garba dance. The whole atmosphere is so mesmerizing that it leaves the audience totally spellbound. Lights, colors, high energy levels, glimpses of culture, entertainment etc. are what best describes this festive occasion. The tourists thoroughly enjoy this dance festival, as they 
get a chance to see the dance forms of ancient as well as contemporary India simultaneously. Bharat Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathak and many other classical dance forms performed at Sun tample.
Brief History of the District
Mahesana district has been described as "Aanart" or "Aparant" region in the Skand Purana and 
Pharmaranya Purana during the age of the Puranas. Taranga, Vadnagar, Modhera and Becharaji talukas have been mentioned as separate areas in various Puranas and ancient books. It seems that Vadnagar was the capital of Aanartpur.The Mauryan Age, Gupta Age and the period of Chalukya (Solanki and the Golden Age) all witnessed the glory of Mahesana. It also progressed during the sultanate age and during the rule of the Moghals, Marathas and the Gaekwad. It is said that a Rajput named Mesaji Chavda had founded that city of Mahesana. In the year 1932, the poet Jaisinh Brahmbhatt has described in his ancient poems that Mesaji Chavda established a temple of Goddess Toran and thus founded that city of Mahesana on the 10th day of the Bhadarva month in 1358 AD thereafter the city was opened 
for settlement today Goddess "Toran" the sole witness to the establishment of Mahesana is
spreading the light of development through its Akhand Jyot (Perpetual lamp) which is burning for the past 649 years.Before that the history of the present Mahesana district can be distinctly traced from the end of the Seventh century onwards. Towards the end of 7th century, Raja Bhuvad of Kalyan 
invaded panchasar and destroyed this town, but the queen Roopsundri, survived to give birth to Vanraj in the woods. In the forest the queen gave birth to a son on “Vaishakh Sud Poonam”. As the child was born in the forest he was named Vanraj. The Anhilvad Patan was administratively important since earliest time as it was the capital of Gujarat for over 600 years between 8th and 14th centuries and had attained prosperity during Chavda and Solanki period.During the Solanki period administratively Patan and nearby area assumed tremendous 
importance. Under the reign of Karandev and Siddhraj, Patan attained its greatest splendor and 
highest prosperity. Patan was the Capital of Gujarat where famous monuments like ‘Sahastraling Talav’, Ranibai’s Vav etc. were built. During the Sultanate period, the 
administrative and political importance of Patan was reduce as Sultan Ahmad Shah founded the 
city of Ahmedabad.Later on, this part came under the direct rule of Gaekwad of Baroda during the first 
decade of the 19th century and remained with him till 1949, when Baroda State was merged into Bombay State. During the period of freedom movement, district joined the prevailing trends in the nation. The Quit India movement 1942 saw the intensification in the activities by the Prajamandal under the guidance of the Congress in the British India. Kadi, Mahesana, Saij 
and Ladol became the storm centers in this political movement.
Lastly the Bombay State was bifurcated on 1st May, 1960 and separate State of Gujarat and Maharashtra were found. Since that date the Mahesana district became a part of Gujarat State. In the year 1964, 25 Villages of Kalol taluka were transferred to the Gandhinagar district.The Patan District constructed from the five talukas of Mahesana like Patan, Siddhpur, Sami, Chanasma and Harij on 2nd October, 1997. The Mansa taluka of Gandhinagar district is separated from Vijapur taluka of Mahesana district in 2001.

Mahesana district is situated in the 
north part of the Gujarat State. The district is in North Gujarat Agro-Climate Zone of Gujarat. The district lies between 23.5° to 24.10°N latitude and 72° 0’ to 73°0’ E longitude situated. The length from north to south of this territory is about 118.1 km and from east to west is about 94.0 km. It is bounded on the north by the Banas Kantha district, on the east by Sabarkantha district, on the south east by Gandhinagar district, on the west by Patan district, on the south and south west by Ahmadabad district. For administrative convenience, the district has been divided into 9 talukas. With total 597 villages and 
10 towns. The area covered by this district is 4,401.00 sq. km that is 2.24 percent of the total geographical area of Gujarat State and density of this district is 462 population per sq. kmagainst the density of the Gujarat is 308 and ranks 16th in comparison to other districts of the state. 
The Mahesana district belongs to the northern part of the main-land of Gujarat. To the east of the Sabarmati, the country is well–wooded and to the south and east, it is hilly and picturesque. In the western parts of the district the country becomes very monotonous.
Geologically, the district is mainly composed of alluvium, blown sand, etc. Delhi System and Erinpura Granite formations are also seen in north-eastern tip of the district. It has commercially workable deposits of petroleum and natural gas. The soil of the district is generally sandy loam. On the basis of physiography, climate, geology, soils and natural vegetation, the district is sub-divided into 5 sub-micro regions viz., Western Sandy Waste,Central Alluvial Plain, Mahesana Aravalli, Sabarmati Basin and Mahesana Lowland.
(1) Western Sandy Waste
The region is having low relief in comparison to other regions of the district. The maximum height of 57 meters above M.S.L. is found in Chanasma taluka of this region and it decrease towards west. Saraswati is the main river of the region; flows from north-east to south-
west direction and ultimately sub–merges into the little Rann of Kachchh. Banas River also touches northern boundary of this region. The geology of the region is composed of alluvium, blown sand etc.
(2) Central Alluvial plain
The region occupies the northern part of the district and covers Visnagar, Vijapur, Vadnagar and Mahesana talukas. It is surrounded by Banas Kantha district from north, byWestern Sandy Waste from west, by Mahesana Aravalli from north-east, by Sabarmati Basin from east, by Mahesana Lowland from south-west and by Gandhinagar district from south-east.The region is plain having a maximum elevation of 100 meters above M.S.L. The slope 
is towards west. Thus, all the rivers viz. Banas, Saraswati, Rupen and their tributaries whichfrom the drainage pattern of this region flow towards westerly direction. The region has the geological structure of alluvium, blown sand etc.
(3) Mahesana Aravalli
The region of the district makes boundaries with Banas Kantha district in the west and 
north, Sabar Kantha district in thesouth-east and Central Alluvial Plain and Sabarmati Basin in the south.
The terrain of this region is undulating with the altitude ranging from 200 meters to 370 meters above M.S.L. The maximum height is recorded at Taranga Hill. The geological structure of this region is formed of alluvium, blown sand, etc. Erinpura Granite and Delhi system rocks 
are met sedimentary.
(4) Sabarmati Basin
This basin occupies parts of Vijapur taluka. It is bounded on the north by MahesanaAravalli, on the east by Sabarkantha district and on the south by Gandhinagar district while Banas Kantha district enclose it from west. 
The basin is formed by Sabarmati River which flows in the region from north to south direction. The height goes up to 100 meters above M.S.L. The geology of this region pertains to alluvium, blown sand etc.
(5) Mahesana Lowland
This lowland occupies Kadi, Mahesana and Visnagar talukas. It is surrounded by 
Central Alluvial Plain from north and east.
The topography of this region is flat and of sandy plain. The elevation is generally, 
varies between 68 meters and 99 meters above M.S.L. The geological structural of this region 
composed of alluvium, blown sand etc.
The Taranga Hill, the only hill in the Mahesana district is situated in Kheralu taluka. It is approximately 365.8 meters (1,200 feet) above mean sea level. It is 4.8 km (3 miles) away from the terminus railway station of that name on Mahesana-Taranga Hill railway line. There
are several Jain temples on the hill. There are no other hills in the Mahesana district, however 
the only redeeming feature which diversify the general flat surface of the district are hillocks and ridges of blown sandy loam which rise on an average of not more than 15.2 meters to 18.3 meters (50 feet to 60 feet) above the general level and only occasionally attain a height of 30.5 meters (100 feet) or little more.
Principal rivers of Mahesana district are Sabarmati and Rupen. There is no water wayin these rivers. Water is filled in these rivers only by monsoon rains.
(1) The Sabarmati River
Sabarmati River originates from Aravalli Mountains. In its course of 90 km in the district, it passes through Kheralu and Vijapur talukas and flows towards south. Then the river meets the Gulf of Khambhat. Sabarmati River has perennial water. This river flows 
approximately for 90 km in the Mahesana district and then it enters in the Gandhinagar district. 
Dharoi Water Resources Project occurs on the Sabarmati River in the village Dharoi of Kheralu taluka of the Mahesana district.
(2) The Rupen River
Rupen River originates from Taranga hills in Kheralu taluka of Mahesana district. It passes through Kheralu, Visnagar and Mahesana talukas and absorbs in small desert of Kachchh. The river has two tributaries and twelve sub-tributaries. After a course of about 135km in this district, the river Rupen disappears in the Little Rann of Kachchh near village Taranagar of Sami taluka of the district. Its main tributaries are (i) the Pushmavati and (ii) the Khari. 
(3) The Pushmavati River
The river originates near village Malekpur of the Kheralu taluka of the district. The river passes through 2 talukas of this district, viz. Kheralu and Visnagar. After a course of approximately 77 km this river meets the Rupen River.
(4) The Banas River
The river Banas including its all tributaries and nalas has its origin in Rajasthan and enters the Gujarat State near the village Awal of Palanpur taluka of Banas Kantha district. The river enters the Mahesana district with its tributary Chekaria River. It flows for about 40 km in this district and disappears in the Little Rann of Kachchh. 
The climate of this district is characterized by a hot summer and general dryness in the major part of the year. The year may be divided into three seasons. The cold season is from December to February. The hot season from March to the middle of June is followed by the south-west monsoon season which continues up to about the end of September. October and November constitute the post-monsoon or transition period.
The climate of the district is warm. In the district, May is generally the hottest month whereas January is the coldest month. It receives maximum rainfall during the monsoon seasonfrom June to August.The district has semi-arid climate with three distinguished i.e. Kharif (June to September), winter (October to January) and summer (February to May). The climate is 
generally found suitable for agriculture field works during monsoon and winter and early summer month.
(12) Transport and Communication
Transport and Communication facilities are considered as administrative necessity as well as a public convenience. Moreover; a well-knit transportation system is pre-requisite for the social and economic development of any district. As regards the means of transportation, the district is well 
developed with national and state highways alongwith railway lines pass through the district.
(a) Road
The linking of one place with other by road is very essential to provide good transport system. There exists a 51 km four-lane toll road with two service lanes on either side on 
Ahmedabad–Mahesana route. The district is connected with Ahmedabad (74 km), Gandhinagar 
(68 km), Vapi (458 km), Palanpur (72 km), Rajkot (299 km) and Surendranagar (143 km). According to the classification of road, made by Roads and Buildings Department, Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, road length in the district by category for the years 2006 to 2010 for Mahesana district is mentioned below.
Road Length of Different Categories
(In Kilometers)

(b) Railway
There are 57 villages having railway facilities in Mahesana
district. Total length of railway line in the district is 308 km. There are 17 stations on broad gauge line and 40 stations on meter gauge line. Ahmedabad-Delhi broad gauge line passes through the district.Mahesana is well connected with other districts of the State like Patan, Porbandar and Ahmedabad by rail. It is further connected to Kandla port via a rail network through Ahmedabad and Gandhidham. A broad gauge rail line of 52 km is present in the district. Total length of meter gauge rail line is 105 km in district.Talukawise Railway Statiion.

4) Gram Panchayats, 
Its Composition, Jurisdiction and Role in the Development ofVillage and Its EconomyThe system of Panchayati Raj was introduced in the year 1963 in Gujarat State. Under this set up, the 3 tier system was introduced namely, The District Panchayat, The Taluka Panchayat and The Gram Panchayat. Gram Panchayat is an important institution of self-government. The Gram Panchayat is formed for a village or a group of villages.The Gram Panchayat is 
constituted for a local area with the population of less than 15000. Such local area may be revenue village or a group of revenue villages or hamlets forming part of a revenue village or such other administrative unit or part of thereof. The number of members of Gram Panchayat 
varies from 7 to 15. The tenure of Gram Panchayat is of five years. The people of village elect Sarpanch and Vice-Sarpanch (Up-Sarpanch) and other members of the Panchayat.Every village Panchayat is divided into wards, i.e. smaller areas. Each ward elects a 
representative who is known as the Ward Member (Panch). All the members of the Gram Sabha 
also elect a Sarpanch who is the Panchayat President. The Ward Panchs and the Sarpanch form the Gram Panchayat. The Gram Panchayat is elected for five years.
The Gram Panchayat has a secretary who is also the secretary of the Gram Sabha. This person is not an elected person but is appointed by the government. The Secretary is responsible for calling the meeting of the Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayat and also for keeping a record of the proceedings.
(a) Gram Sabha
The Gram Sabha is a meeting of all adults who live in the area covered by a Panchayat. 
This could be only one village or a few villages. In some states, as in the example above, a village meeting is held for each village. Anyone who is 18 years old or more and who has the right to vote is a member of the Gram Sabha.
The Gram Sabha prevents the Panchayat from doing wrong things like misusing money or favouring certain people. It plays an important role in keeping an eye on the elected representatives and in making them responsible to the persons who elected them.
The main work of a Gram Panchayat includes. 
1. The construction and maintenance of water sources, roads, drainage School buildings 
and other common property resources.
2. Levying and collecting local taxes.
3. Executing government schemes related to generating employment in the village.
(b) Sources of funds for the Panchayat
1. Collection of taxes on houses, market places etc.
2. Government scheme funds received through various departments of the government 
through District Panchayats. Donations for community works etc.
Various committees like; Social Justice Committee and Standing Committee are 
formed. In the year 1993 Government of India enacted an 73rd Constitutional Amendment
regarding provisions of Panchayati Raj and in light of that constitutional amendment 
Government of Gujarat enacted amended Panchayati Raj Act from 15th April, 1994. By this 
constitutional amendment, Panchayats are given constitutional status. Regular and timelyelection, participation of women and backward classes, formation of separate State Election 
Commission and rotation system in electing the heads of the various committees are other 
significant amendments in the act. Decentralized planning process and active participation of 
people is the soul of the Panchayati Raj Act. The powers for decentralized planning, 
implementation and development are delegated to the Panchayats. 
The primary functions of the District/Taluka Panchayats are providing facilities for 
primary education, health, drinking water, electricity, constructions and maintenance of roads, 
bridges etc., maintenance of gauchars, organising relief work at the time of scarcity and drought 
situation, sanitation and social welfare. Arrangements for housing facilities for below poverty 
line people and rural development schemes are implemented by panchayats. Gram Panchayats 
also implement important programmes like, ‘food for work’ and other programmes beneficial 
for the local people. Thus, Panchayats play an important role in the development of village and economy.

A ‘Building’ is generally a single structure on the ground. Usually a structure will have four walls and a roof. Sometimes it is made up of more than one component unit which are used or likely to be used as dwellings (residences) or establishments such as shops, business houses, offices, factories, workshops, work sheds, Schools, places of entertainment, places of worship, godowns, stores etc. It is also possible that building which have component units may be used 
for a combination of purposes such as shop-cum-residence, workshopcum-residence, office-cum-residence etc. But in some areas the very nature of construction of houses is such that there may not be any wall. Such is the case of conical structures where entrance is also provided but 
they may not have any walls. Therefore, such of the conicalstructures are also treated as separate buildings.
Pucca Houses
Houses, the walls and roof of which are made of permanent materials. The material ofwalls can be any one from the following, namely, Stones (duly packed with lime or cement mortar), G.I/metal/ asbestos sheets, Burnt bricks, Cement bricks, Concrete. Roof may be made 
of from any one of the following materials, namely, Machine-made tiles, Cement tiles, Burnt bricks, Cement bricks, Stone, Slate, G.I/Metal/Asbestos sheets, Concrete. Such houses are treated as Pucca house.
Kuchcha Houses
Houses in which both walls and roof are made of materials, which have to be replaced frequently. Walls may be made from any one of the following temporary materials, namely, grass, Unburnt bricks, bamboos, mud, grass, reeds, thatch, plastic /polythene, loosed packed stone, etc. Such houses are treated as Kuchcha house.
Dwelling Room
A room is treated as a dwelling room if it has walls with a doorway and a roof and should be wide and long enough for a person to sleep in, i.e. it should have a length of not less than 2 meters and a breadth of at least 1.5 meters and a height of 2 meters. A dwelling room would include living room, bedroom, dining room, drawing room, study room, servant’s room and other habitable rooms. Kitchen, bathroom, latrine, store room, passageway and veranda which are not normally usable for living are not considered as dwelling rooms. A room, used for multipurpose such as sleeping, sitting, dining, storing, cooking, etc., is regarded as a dwelling room. In a situation where a census house is used as a shop or office, etc., and the household also stays in it then the room is not considered as adwelling room. But if a garage 
or servant quarter is used by a servant and if she/ he also lives in it as a separate household then this has been considered as a dwelling room available to the servant’s household. Tent or conical shaped hut if used for living by any household is also considered as dwelling room. A dwelling room, which is shared by more than one household, has not been counted for any of them. If two households have a dwelling room each but in addition also share a common dwelling room, then the common room has not been counted for either of the households.
A ‘Census House’ is a building or part of a building used or recognized as a separate unit because of having a separate main entrance from the road or common courtyard or staircase, etc. It may be occupied or vacant. It may be used for residential or non- residential purpose or both. If a building has a number of Flats or Blocks/Wings, which are independent of one another having separate entrances of their own from the road or a common staircase or a common courtyard leading to a main gate, these are considered as a separate Census House.
The basic unit for rural areas is the revenue village, which has definite surveyed boundaries. The revenue village may comprise of one or more hamlets but the entire village is treated as one unit for presentation of data. In unsurveyed areas, like villages within forest areas, 
each habitation area with locally recognized boundaries is treated as one village.
Town/ Urban area
The data in the census are presented separately for rural and urban areas. The unit of 
classification in this regard is ‘town’ for urban areas and ‘village’ for rural areas. The urban 
area comprises two types of town viz. statutory towns and Census towns. In the Census of India 
2011, the definition of urban area adopted is as follows
(a) Statutory Towns
All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area 
committee, etc. is known as statutory towns.
(b) Census Towns
All other places satisfying the following three criteria simultaneously are treated as 
Census Towns.
i) A minimum population of 5,000;
ii) At least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and
iii) A density of population of at least 400 per sq. km. (1,000 per sq. mile) 
For identification of places which would qualify to be classified as ‘urban’ all villages, 
which, as per the 2001 Census had a population of 4,000 and above, a population density of 
400 persons per sq. km. and having at least 75 per cent of male working population engaged in 
non-agricultural activity were considered. To work out the proportion of male working 
population referred to above against b) (ii), the data relating to main workers were taken into 
account. In addition the above stated towns, urban areas also constitutes of OGs which are the 
parts of UAs.
Urban Agglomeration
An Urban Agglomeration is a continuous urban spread constituting a town and its 
adjoining urban outgrowths (OGs) or two or more physically contiguous towns together with 
or without urban outgrowths of such towns. In some cases, railway colonies, university 
campuses, port areas, military camps etc. may come up near a statutory town outside its 
statutory limits but within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town. 
Each such individual area by itself may not satisfy the minimum population limit to qualify it 
to be treated as an independent urban unit but may qualify to be clubbed with the exiting townas their continuous urban spread (i.e., an Out Growth). Each such town together with its
outgrowth(s) is treated as an integrated urban area and is designated as an ‘urban 
agglomeration’. For the purpose of delineation of Urban Agglomerations during Census of 
India 2011, following criteria has been adopted
(a) The core town or at least one of the constituent towns of an urban agglomeration 
should necessarily be a statutory town; and
(b) The total population of an Urban Agglomeration (i.e. all the constituents put together) 
should not be less than 20,000 as per the 2001 Census. In varying local conditions, 
there were similar other combinations which have been treated as urban 
agglomerations satisfying the basic condition of contiguity. 
Out Growth (OG)
The outgrowth is a viable unit such as a village or a hamlet or an enumeration block and 
clearly identifiable in terms of its boundaries and location. While determining the outgrowth of 
a town, it has been ensured that it possesses the urban features in terms of infrastructure and 
amenities such as pucca roads, electricity, taps, drainage system for disposal of waste water 
etc., educational institutions, post offices, medical facilities, banks etc. and physically 
continuous with the core town of the UA. 
Towns with population of 100,000 and above are called cities.
A ‘household’ is usually a group of persons who normally live together and take their 
meals from a common kitchen unless the exigencies of work prevent any of them from doing 
so. Persons in a household may be related or unrelated or a mix of both. However, if a group of 
unrelated persons live in a census house but do not take their meals from the common kitchen, 
then they are not constituent of a common household. Each such person was to be treated as a 
separate household. The important link in finding out whether it was a household or not was a 
common kitchen/common cooking. There may be one member households, two member 
households or multi-member households.
Institutional Household
A group of unrelated persons who live in an institution and take their meals from a common kitchen is called an Institutional Household. Examples of Institutional Households are boarding houses, messes, hostels, hotels, rescue homes, observation homes, beggars’ homes, jails, ashrams, old age homes, children homes, orphanages, etc. To make the definition more clearly perceptible to theenumerators at the Census 2011, it was specifically mentioned that this category or households would cover only those households where a group of unrelated persons live in an institution and share a common kitchen.

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